The Skeleton Plane


This skeleton is the blueprint for an experience before it takes its final shape. This can be how elements are arranged at the visual layer so that users can interact with a system.

The skeleton plane is made up of three parts: interface design under product as functionality, navigation design under product as information and information design, which extends across the plane.

Interface Design

User interface design, also known as UI design, is the visual layout of the elements that a user may interact with on a website or an app. A well-designed user interface enables users to complete their tasks accurately and efficiently.

Information Design

Information design organizes content systematically. To present app content clearly, I define type systems, icons, imagery, colors, graphics, and data visualization. Visual design, including branding, typography, colors, feedback, and cues, reinforces content meaning and aligns with the target audience.

Before delving into UI design, I audited FSMOne's visual identity. Overuse of maroon and generic stock photos detracts from the brand, conveying impersonality. The dated overall identity poses challenges in connecting with young, first-time retail investors.

A brand's visual identity is crucial in forming lasting impressions. It serves as the initial touchpoint for customers, conveying the brand's essence and values.

The new visual identity would guide the overall look and feel of the new FSMOne app design.

Final UI Design

Key Learning

  • Good feature to have — Goal setting, Learning the jargon

  • ‘Settings’ should be an category on its own

  • App security setting is placed last in the setting hierarchy as participants expected their data to be protected and secured within the app

  • Pre-determined funds should be placed under ‘Discover’ section and not under ‘Dashboard’, so that user can view the funds whenever she is ready to invest

The Structure Plane

Information Architecture

After defining and prioritizing functional specifications and content requirements, I better understand the final product. Now, I assess user navigation and the app interaction for a seamless FSMOne experience.

I conducted an open and closed card sorting of 54 cards, with 6 representative pages of the FSMOne app to analyse the information architecture I have proposed and identify areas for improvements.


  • Open Card Sorting — 3 participants

  • Closed Card Sorting — 3 participants


  • Participants took a longer time to figure out how to sort cards into categories during the open card session

  • Participants were not familiar with jargons such as “Indices”, “Trading Playbook”, “Watchlist”

The Scope Plane

Functional Specification

Having a clear understanding of the business’ outcome and user’s outcome, I can transform the product objectives into specific requirements for what content and functionality the product will offer to users.

I'm ideating features aligned with the product's goal. Using a Value Proposition Canvas, I ensure solutions address genuine user problems, striving for product-market fit

As a result, I can effectively form my hypothesis about the features to have.

Prioritizing Business Goals

After consolidating all the ideas, I prioritise features based on importance and realism for the business goal. Mapping on an Effort/Impact scale helps focus on high-impact, low-effort features.

Content Requirements

Content requirements are essential elements in a digital product, which provide necessary information to guide users. Conducting a content inventory and audit, I used content framing early in the design process.

Product Strategy: How we do it?

5 elements of UX

Embracing the Lean UX approach - begins with the idea that everything is an assumption until we prove otherwise, I embarked on a journey encompassing the 5 elements of UX—Strategy, Scope, Structure, Skeleton, and Surface—to enhance the FSMOne app's user experience.

Strategy Plane

Product Objectives

Before crafting hypotheses, understanding FSMOne's business goals and user needs is essential. Utilising Business Model Canvas, I identify target markets, market demands, and the role of products in addressing needs.

Business Goals

“To help investors around the world invest globally and profitably.”

“We scour the world for the best investment ideas so you can invest profitably.”

From the information gathered, the assumed business goal of FSMOne are:

User Needs

Using the Lean UX technique, I will start with an assumption about the user, assuming that I am solving his or her problem using the FSMOne app, and subsequently validate that assumption through research.

The following is the proto-persona for this UX case study:

I validated my proto-persona through quantitative research using a Typeform survey. Within two days, I gathered 10 responses to understand user needs and behavior in brokerage trading apps.

The results of a quantitative research using the survey method revealed the following insights:

Product Objectives

To summarise, the business goal of attracting young tech-savvy first-time retail investors to invest globally and profitably, as well as the user requirements for a functional and user-friendly trading platform that allows them to invest on the move and with ease.

Therefore, the product objective can be defined:

Key Learning

By applying Lean UX principles and the 5 elements of UX, the result was a streamlined FSMOne app with a user-friendly navigation design, aimed at capturing the interest and engagement of first-time retail investors.


App Redesign 🚀

Navigation Design

Navigation design is foundational, guiding movement through the product and defining content relationships. Mapping the user journey aids in offering intuitive navigational elements for a seamless, efficient experience.

For this case study, I will be focusing on 3 user flow:

#1 New user signing up on the app

Solutions 1 & 2:

2. New user exploring the app for the first time

Solutions 3, 4 & 5:

3. Guide for first-time retail investor

Solutions 6, 7, 8 & 9:

The Challenge

Problem Statement


Lean UX approach

Lean UX is pivotal for enhancing FSMOne. It involves iterative work, efficient design, and customer-centric decisions. Personal assumptions drive hypotheses, forming the foundation for product improvement.


I pursued this case study as an individual to improve the experience of using FSMOne app and an opportunity to document the full processes that I have taken up.

FSMOne, a Reliable Brokerage For Long Term Investors, in Singapore for 20 years, faces strong competition from newcomers Tiger Brokers and Moomoo, enticing investors with free shares and commission-free trading.

My Deliverables:

UXUI Design, UX Strategy, Project Objectives, Functional Specifications, Content Requirements, Interaction Design, Information Architecture, Interface Design, Navigation Design




UXUI Designer


Dec'21 - Feb'22 (3 months)


Project Summary

This is a Lean UX case study focusing on FSMOne, a Singapore-based fintech company facing heightened competition in the online investing space. 

Lean UX Case Study on FSMOne’s App Redesign

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